Ⅰ Each of the statements below is followed by four alternative answers. Choose the one that best completes the statement. (30%)
1 Which of the following is NOT true about the definition of a word?
A. A word has a given meaning.
B. A word is a soundless unity,
C. A word is the minimal free for of a language.
D. A word is a form that can function alone in a sentence
2. Words may fall into content words and functional words by_____
D. use frequency
3. Newly-created words or expressions, or words that have taken on new meanings are. _. . .
4.The Indo-European language is made up of most of the languages of Europe,____， and India.
C. the Near East
D. the Far East
5. There are such new words as fast food, talk shows, and open university in Modem English.These words show._.
A. the invasion of foreign countries
B. social, economic and political changes
C. the infuence of other cultures and languages
D. the rapid development of modern science and technology
6. Which of the following is NOT true?
A. English is more closely related to German than French.
B.Modern English is considered to be an analytic language.
C. The introduction of printing into England marked the beginning of modern English period.).
D. The four major foreign contributors to English vocabulary in earlier times are Latin, French, I Scandinavian and Italian.
7.The smallest functioning unit in the composition of words is _
A. morpheme B. affixes C. root D. stem
8 There is/are_______ monomorphemic word(s) in the following words: cats, boss, work, geese, tried.
A.1 B.2 C.3 D.4
9 Which of the following words does NOT have suffixes?
A. bossy B. widen C. happy D. worker
10. The word that has a prefix of size is_
A. misconduct B. devalue C. anti-nuclear D. mini-election
11. The formation of new words by converting words of one class to another class is cale____
A. prefixation B. compounding C. conversion D. cipping
12. The following words are formed by clipping EXCEPT_
A. phone B. motel C. dorm D. flu
l3. In word meaning, the relationship between language and the word is_____ , by means of which, a speaker indicates which things in the world are being talked about
A. reference B. concept C. sense D. motivation
14. Which of the following examples shows that every word that has meaning has sense, but not every word has reference?
A. argue, quarrel B. probable, but
C. pavement, sidewalk D. much time, many people
15. In modern English some words were created by imitating the natural sounds or noises, and the sounds suggest their meanings, like bang, croak, and buzz. These words are_ motivated.
D. etymologically16. The central meaning of the word face i______A. a surface of a thing
B. the front of the head
C. the functional surface
D. the appearance
17. Words like bow that means bending the head as a greeing and bow that means the device used as shooting arrows are called_
A. synonyms B. homographsC. homophones D. antonyms
18. Which of the folowing groups of words shows diference of synonyms in denotation?
A. extend increase B. homely-domesticC. policeman -cop D. sense -meaning
19. The word liquor once meant liquid, but now means alcoholic drink. This is an example of of word-meaning.
A. extension B. narrowing C. transfer D. degradation
20. For the word nice, its original meaning was ignorant, then changed to foo!ish and now it means delightful, pleasant. This process s______ of word-meaning.
A. extension B. elevation C. transfer D. degradation
21.____ reason is reflected in the meaning change of the word car, from *a two-wheel cart drawnby horses and used in war to automobile.
A. Class B. Technical C. Psychological D. Historical
22. The context where the meaning of a word is influenced by the structure in which it occurs is called context.
A. non-linguistic B. lexical C. semantic D. grammatical
23. That landlord means dffently in western countries and in China shows th_____ context has some effect on the meaning of words.
A. grammatical B. lexical C. linguistic D. extra-linguistic
24. Ambiguity often arises due to____ , as is shown in the sentence The fish is ready to eat.
A. polysemy B. homonomy
C. grammatical structure D. lexical structure
25. The idiom _____ " is an idiom nominal in nature.
A. white elephant
B. up in the air
C. make it
D. tooth and nail
26. The idiom ______ . is an example of euphemism.
A. as mute as a fish
B. earn one's bread
C. powder one's nose
D. crocodile tears
27. The following are rhetorical features of idioms EXCEPT___
A. literary expressions
B. figures of speech
C. phonetic manipulation
D. lexical manipulation
28. The reader cannot find pronunciation or meanings or usage but other information in,
A. desk dictionaries
B. linguistic dictionaries
D. pocket dictionaries29. Which of the ollowing is the bestknown unabridged dictionary?.
A. The Concise Oxford Dictionary, Ninth Edition (1996)
B. Webster s Third New International Dictionary
C. Webster s Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary
D. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, New Edition (1987)
30. Usage notes in LDCE New Edition (1987) cover the ollowing EXCEPT_
A. dificult grammar and stylistic points
B. difrences between British and American usages
C. discrimination between synonyms and near-synonyns
D. examples selected from actual usage, not invented by compilers
II. Complete the fllowing statements with proper words or expressions according to the course book. (15%)
31. In diferent languages the same concept can be represented by difrent ____ For example, woman becomes "Frau" in German, and "femme"" in French.
32. In Old English period, the introduction of Christianity had a great impact on the English vocabulary. It brought many. ____ terms such as altar, amen and candle.
33. The basic form of a word which cannot be further analyzed without total loss of identity is a_____
34. According to the positions which ffxes occupy in words, affixation alls into two sublasses: prefixation and._____
35.__ accounts for the connection betwee the linguistic symbol and its meaning.
36. Antonyns can be casified into three major groups: contradictory terms, contrary terms and____ terms.
37. The word joumal originally denoted mere “daily paper”, but now has come to include
“periodical"___ of meaning is rflected in this example.
38. The word do conveys a number of meanings, but it means diferently in“do one's teth" and“do science at scoo!".This example shows that ____ context will determine exactly whata word means.
39. Structural.____ is reflected in such idioms as by twos and threes, tit for tat, whose word order cannot be changed.
40. American dictionaries contain more _____ information in the main body than the British, for exampie, names of famous people, places of historical interest and the like.
Ⅲ. Define the following terms. (15%)
44. context (in a narrow sense)
IV. Answer the fllowing questions. Your answers sbould be clear and short. (20%)
46. What is ffx? How to group ffixes according to their functions?
47. What's the diference between prefixes and suffixes?
48. What are the major sources of English synonyms?
49.Explain how context clues are used in the sentence“*Their greatest. fear was of a conflagration, since fire would destroy their flimsy wooden sttlement before help could arive".
V. Analyze and comment on the ollowing. (20%)
50. famous, skinny, notorious, slender pigheaded, determined
Give the definition of affective meaning of words and use the above words to ilustrate the twocategories of the affective words.
51. Use the ollowing two groups of sentences as examples to ilustate how to use superordinates and surbordinates.
(a) There was a fne rocking-chair that his father used to sit in, a desk where he wrote etters, a
nest of small tables and a dark bookcase. Now all this fumiture was to be sold, and with it his own past.
(b) 1) Trees surround the water near our summer place.
2) Old elms surround the lake near our summer cabin.